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Gleichbleibende Farben vorhanden? | be in-credible
30 Januar, 2012 von Thomas Noschka · 0 Kommentare

Der Sinn und Zweck von Color-Management im System

Warum ist Color Management so wichtig?

sRGB-Farbraum

Am Computer sehen die Farben richtig kräftig und strahlend aus. Leider bringt der Drucker diese Leuchtkraft nicht auf Papier wieder, sodass die Farben nie übereinstimmen. Woran liegt es? Am Papier, am Drucker, an der Farbe selbst – nein, oftmals liegt es am Color-Management! Nur wer Color-Management betreibt, bekommt gleich-bleibende Farben und ein perfektes Ergebnis

Woher kommt diese Notwendigkeit von Color-Management? Es liegt an der Entwicklung offener modularen Systemen. Es gibt so viele einzelne Bausteine, die oftmals den gleichen Ausgang erweisen. Wenn wir beispielsweise etwas gestalten, besitzen wir oftmals grundverschiedene Systeme, auf denen ein Design entwickelt wird. Egal ob Computer, Smartphone, Scanner – die verschiedenen Farbarbeitsräume, Farbtöne und viele andere Faktoren sind nicht genormt. Selbst die Bildschirmhelligkeit lässt Farben anders aussehen, als sie es wirklich sind. Doch mit Hilfe von Color-Management können die eingegebenen Farbdaten im gesamten Prozess gleich bleiben und vorhersehbar verarbeitet werden. Daher ist es für das Color-Management die Aufgabe, Farben der beteiligten Geräte stets anzugleichen.

Offene System verlangen also ein Color-Management – wie war es denn damals? Wie funktioniert es mit geschlossenen Systemen? Von der Bilddigitalisierung bis zum Druck gab es keine Schnittstelle, die eine Verbindung zu anderen Systemen erlaubte. Ein Scanneroperator scannte in diesem Prozess Bildvorlagen ein und speicherte diese im CMYK-Modus ab, wo sie dann letztendlich für ein ganz spezielles Druckverfahren aufbereitet wurden. Je nach Druckverfahren richtete sich der Gesamtfarbauftrag sowie der Schwarzaufbau des Bildes neu, da für jedes einzelne Bild ein eigener Farbauftrag festgelegt werden musste. Außerdem wurden für den Tonwertzuwachs, Druckkennlinien während des Scanvorgangs in den Bilddatensatz eingerechnet, was einen prozessbedingten Punktzuwachs mit sich brachte. Farbabweichungen wurden mit einem Densitometer gemessen und geregelt, ein Gerät, welches Farbschwankungen als Helligkeitsänderungen in den Primärfarben misst. Zum Schluss war das Ergebnis von den Farbwerten genau identisch mit der Vorlage.

Heute ist es jedoch durch die offene und immer größer werdende Anzahl variabler  Systeme anders geregelt, da jedes Gerät in seinem eigenen Farbraum arbeitet. Und der Weg vom Gerät bis zum endgültigen Produkt ist nicht gerade einfach, da sich die Farbumfänge erheblich voneinander abweichen. Der zunehmende Datenaustausch und die Mehrfachnutzung digitaler Daten für die verschiedensten Informationsmedien wie Print, Web, CD-ROM und viele mehr, verlangt neue Workflows – eine medienneutrale Farbdatenverarbeitung, um gleichbleibende Farben zu gewährleisten. Was ist also zu tun? Erst müssen die Teilprozesse und Einzelkomponenten farbmetrisch bewertet werden. Das bedeutet, dass eine eindeutige Kennzeichnung von Farben auf messtechnischer Grundlage erforderlich ist. Das Gerät, welches seinen eigenen Farbraum besitzt, wird im Bezug darauf auf ein geräteunabhängiges Referenzfarbsystem charakterisiert. Für den Farbraum wählt man daher CIELAB, da dieser das gesamte für das menschliche Auge sichtbare Farbspektrum umfasst. Farbmetrische Gerätschaften wie das Proofgerät oder die Druckmaschine, können Farbprofile getrennt von den Bilddaten abspeichern. Der Clou: Bilddaten können so jederzeit und in unterschiedlichen Produktionsketten ausgetauscht werden.

Autor Thomas Noschka
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Hallo, ich bin Thomas – Blogger, Grafik- und Interface Designer. Ich skate gerne, trinke Tee, reise oft und sehe das Internet als große Spielwiese an. Wenn du mehr über mich wissen möchtest, dann besuche mich auf Twitter, Facebook, Google+ und YouTube

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