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Photoshop Pfade richtig nutzen | be in-credible
14 August, 2011 von Thomas Noschka · 0 Kommentare

Pfade in Photoshop anlegen – Beschneidungspfad

Wie setze ich Beschneidungspfade effektiv in photoshop ein?

Effektives Arbeiten mit Pfaden

Folge dem Pfad und die Hilfe ist nah! Pfade sind in Programmen wie Photoshop lediglich Hilfslinien, die jedoch nicht gedruckt werden. So können Pfade oder Umrisse mit Bildpunkten gefüllt werden – dauerhaft oder auch als korrigierbarer Ebeneneffekt. Doch haben Hilfslinien, sprich Pfade, nicht auch andere Vorteile und gibt es da nicht noch eine spezielle Variante?

Jeder, der sich mit dem Thema »Pfade« beschäftigt weiß, dass es keine große Sache ist. Zwar unterstützen sie einem das Gestalten und Positionieren von Elementen – einen speziellen Nutzen haben sie jedoch nicht. Dabei werden Pfade grundlegend von allem unterschieden, was sich nicht an pixelorientierter Bildbearbeitung anlehnt. Pfade sind nämlich nicht nur irgendwelche Linien oder Kurven. Es sind vielmehr Zusammensetzungen aus Ankerpunkten und den gezogenen Linien dazwischen, wie man es üblicherweise in Illustrations-Programmen wie Freehand oder natürlich auch Adobe Illustrator kennt.

Doch wenn Pfade angeblich spannend sind – wie lassen sie sich in Photoshop verwenden? Die Einsatzmöglichkeiten sind dabei vielseitig:

  • Sie dienen als Grundlage für das Auswählen eines Bildteils.
  • Als Kontur, die Photoshop mit diversen Mal- oder Retuschewerkzeugen umrandet oder füllt.
  • Für Vektormasken, die für eine jeweilige Ebene zugeordnet wird und die Ebene außerhalb der Pfadgrenzen unsichtbar macht.
  • Oder als Beschneidungspfad (auf den wir später näher eingehen), der die Begrenzungen eines frei ausgeschnittenen Bildteils angibt.

Glatte und präzise Formen können anhand von Pfadtechniken viel eher gewährleistet werden, vor allem, da sie gut nachzubearbeiten sind. Im Gegensatz dazu stehen pixelorientierte Werkzeuge wie das Lasso oder der Pinsel im Schatten, da die Präzessionen der einzelnen Formen kaum herzustellen sind. Oder wie sieht es mit ausgefransten Kanten aus, die bei einer Auswahl zustande kommt? Auch hier bilden Pfadtechniken flüssige Umrisse, Kanten und harte Ecken. Weiche Übergänge, wie bei einem Haarschopf zum Beispiel, sollten dagegen vermieden wären; Pfade sind hier tabu!

Aber wie kommen Pfade denn überhaupt zustande?  Hierfür existieren verschiedene Arten…

  • Pfad mit dem Zeichen-Werkzeug oder mit dem Freiform Zeichenstift erstellen.
  • Eine Form erstellen, die einen geschlossenen Pfad besitzt, zum Beispiel ein Rechteck mit abgerundeten Ecken.
  • Eine aktive Auswahl in einen Pfad umwandeln.
  • Textebene mit dem Untermenü »Text in einen Arbeitspfad oder in eine Form« konvertieren.

Wie ihr sehen könnt, ist das Anlegen eines Pfades wirklich total einfach. Die Möglichkeiten, einen Pfad aus den verschiedensten Formen umzuwandeln, hat sehr viele Vorteile, wodurch der Arbeitsaufwand um ein Vielfaches verringert wird.
Nun möchte ich aber zum Beschneidungspfad kommen und euch in 6 Schritten zeigen, wie ihr einen speziellen Pfad dieser Sorte anlegen könnt. Beginnen solltet ihr mit dem Erzeugen eines geschlossenen Pfads, der euer gewünschtes Objekt umhüllt. Diesen »Arbeitspfad« müsst ihr nun in einen regulären Pfad umwandeln, indem ihr es auf das Symbol »Neuer Pfad« in der Pfadpalette zieht. Übrigens: Das Zeichen gleicht einem »Sticker«, ist in vielen Fenstern vertreten.
Nun wird es etwas komplizierter: Im Dialogfeld Beschneidungspfad, muss der gewünschte Pfadname sowie die Kurvennäherung ausgewählt werden. Hier gilt: Je niedriger der Wert angegeben wird, desto genauer wird der Kurvenverlauf nachgebildet. In der Regel verwendet man Kurvennäherungen von 8 – 10 für Belichter mit über 1200 dpi. Wer nichts einträgt, geht nach den Voreinstellungen; müsst ihr ausprobieren. Als nächstes bestätigt ihr euer Vorhaben mit »Ok«. Der Pfadname erscheint in der Palette in Fettschrift, was ihn als Beschneidungspfad herausstellt. Jetzt nur noch das Bild abspeichern und die Sache ist gegessen!

Zum Schluss möchte ich nochmals anmerken: Pfade sind nicht nur billige Werkzeuge, die nur als Hilfslinien dienen, sondern effektive Gestalter-Tools! Wie immer muss man nur wissen, wie sie einzusetzen sind.

Autor Thomas Noschka
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Hallo, ich bin Thomas – Blogger, Grafik- und Interface Designer. Ich skate gerne, trinke Tee, reise oft und sehe das Internet als große Spielwiese an. Wenn du mehr über mich wissen möchtest, dann besuche mich auf Twitter, Facebook, Google+ und YouTube

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